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1.) Approximately when did vertebrates begin to evolve?
2.) Where does the term “vertebrate” come from?
3.) What are the 5 major groups of vertebrates?
1.) What are the 3 general names for the classes of fish?
2.) Which class would the guppy, eel or sea horse belong to?
3.) Are all fish “cold-blooded?”
4.) Most fish exchange gases by
5.) What is the hard cover that protects the gills of bony fish?
6.) Fish have a _____ chambered heart and a _________________ circulatory system?
7.) Most fish have a ________________ ____________ system that helps them detect vibrations in the water?
8.) What is the study of fish called?
1.) Amphibians are 4-legged vertebrates that do not have ________________ eggs.
2.) What is herpetology?
3.) Amphibians evolved from?
4.) Many tropical frogs lay eggs that develop into miniature adults so there is no ________________________ stage, this is different than what we are used to.
5.) Name 2 reasons why there has been a major decline in amphibian populations
-Click on "Salamanders"
-Click on "Hellbender"
6.) Can you find Hellbenders in North Georgia?
7.) People are afraid of these salamanders because they can get big! Consequently, they try to kill them. Hellbenders are harmless! What is their conservation status?
-Go back to "salamanders"
8.) What can salamanders do that people often associate with lizards?
FROGS HAVE TEETH, TOADS DO NOT
1.) Reptiles are tetrapods like amphibians. What does this mean?
2.) Unlike amphibians, reptiles are amniotes. What is an amniote?
3.) Are reptiles endothermic or ectothermic?
4.) Refer to question #3…There are always exceptions, give an example.
5.) Most reptiles are oviparous. What does that mean?
6.) Look at the cladogram. Which reptiles are most closely related to birds (Aves)?
7.) Lood at the cladogram. Mammals, reptiles and birds are all amniotes and tetrapods. Based on what you see, mammals, reptiles and birds all ultimately have what common ancestors?
8.) Look at the Reptile Group List. Where do Pterosaurs and Dinosaurs fit in?
9.) How many chambers are in a crocodilian’s heart?
10.) All reptiles breathe using?
11.) When do crocodiles cry?
12.) Some amphibians and some reptiles can asexually reproduce by parthenogenesis. What does that mean?
1.) Are birds ectothermic or endothermic?
2.) All birds are __________________________________ meaning they lay eggs
3.) How many chambers are in a bird heart?
-Scroll to “evolution”
4.) Birds evolved from ?
5.) What is an Archaeopteryx and what does it have to do with #4?
6.) The shells of bird eggs are made of ____________________________________, the same stuff that makes sea shells.
1.) Mammals are special because they have ______________________________ glands.
2.) Most mammals give birth to live young except the ___________________________________ that lay eggs
3.) There is one group of mammals that have true flight, the _____________?
4.) What is a marsupial?
5.) Are humans monotremes, marsupials, or placentals?
-Look under “In the Mesozoic”
6.) Were mammals on Earth with the dinosaurs?
-Type “Manatee” into the search box or click on it on this page
*Manatees are one of my favorite creatures. Some live in the rivers of middle and south Florida. I worry that my children will not be able to see one.
7.) What is the conservation status of manatees in Florida?
8.) Manatees have no natural predators, what is the problem then?
9.) Are manatees herbivores or carnivores?
10.) Who is Snooty and where does he live?
11.) What myth is thought to have been created because of manatees?
12.) Which group of mammals would a manatee belong to? (see #5 of this section)
13.) I saw a skeleton of a manatee at the Mote Aquarium in Sarasota. It had a tiny pelvis. What does this tell you?
ALL MAMMALS SLEEP. IT IS THOUGHT THAT ONLY ONE HEMISPHERE OF A WHALE BRAIN SLEEPS AT A TIME SO WHALES ARE NEVER COMPLETELY ASLEEP. THEY CANNOT GO COMPLETELY ASLEEP BECAUSE OF THEIR NEED TO SURFACE FOR BREATHING.